Part II of the TRIPS Agreement deals with the different types of intellectual property rights and how they can be protected. The aim is to ensure that minimum standards of protection exist in all WTO Members. The starting point here is the obligations of the main international agreements of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), which already existed before the creation of the WTO: The Indian government recently published a new Directive on Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) that is in line with the WTO TRIPS Agreement Unlike other intellectual property agreements, the TRIPS Agreement has a powerful enforcement mechanism. States can be sanctioned by the WTO dispute settlement mechanism. A 2003 agreement relaxed the requirements of the single market and allowed developing countries to export to other countries where there is a national health problem, as long as the exported medicines are not part of a trade or industrial policy.  Medicines exported under such a regime may be repackaged or coloured to prevent them from affecting the markets of developed countries. While the WTO Agreements entered into force on 1 January 1995, the TRIPS Agreement granted WTO Members certain transitional periods before they were required to apply all its provisions. Members of developed countries have been given one year to ensure that their laws and practices are in line with the TRIPS Agreement. Developing countries and (under certain conditions) countries with economies in transition were granted five years, until the year 2000.
The least developed countries were initially 11 years old, until 2006 – now generally extended until 1 July 2021. Some areas are not covered by these agreements. In some cases, the prescribed standards of protection were found to be inadequate. Thus, the TRIPS Agreement significantly complements existing international standards. The TRIPS Agreement is an agreement on minimum standards that allows Members to provide more comprehensive protection of intellectual property if they so wish. Members are free to determine the appropriate method for implementing the provisions of the Agreement in their own legal system and practice. There have been disagreements about whether software qualifies for copyright or patents. The Copyright Office recently decided that software, if not associated with new material, should be protected by copyright. This is a relief for the software industry, as copyrights are cheap, automatically recognized and protected for 60 years, while patents are only valid for 20 years. The agreement contains a general obligation for the parties to provide interested parties with the legal means to prevent the use of means in the designation or presentation of something that indicates or suggests that the subject matter in question originates from a geographical area other than the actual place of origin, so that: this misleads the public as to the geographical origin of the case.
The main amendments to the Indian Patent Act were necessary to fulfil India`s obligations under international agreements and treaties. The new Patents (Amendment) Act 2005 created a strong patent system in India. Overall, the current system has broadened the scope of patenting and offers strict safeguards to the patent owner. The TRIPS Agreement introduced intellectual property law into the multilateral trading system for the first time and remains the most comprehensive multilateral agreement on intellectual property to date. In 2001, developing countries, concerned that developed countries were insisting on too narrow an interpretation of TRIPS, launched a round table that resulted in the Doha Declaration. The Doha Declaration is a WTO declaration that clarifies the scope of the TRIPS Agreement and states, for example, that the TRIPS Agreement can and should be interpreted in terms of the objective of “promoting access to medicines for all”. In the context of these concerns, India has been placed on the “priority watch list” in the United States. .